The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) organised the international conference on Renewable Energy Solutions for Healthcare Facilities in Singapore on 2 November 2018 immediately after the 4th International Off-Grid Renewable Energy Conference and Exhibition (IOREC). It is estimated that over a billion people rely on healthcare facilities without access to adequate electricity supply. While most large hospitals have round-the-clock access to power, electrification rates drop dramatically for rural clinics. In the absence of reliable power, many of the basic life-saving interventions cannot be undertaken safely or at all.
In this context, off-grid renewable energy solutions present a key opportunity to provide clean, reliable and cost-effective electricity to rural health centers, which can dramatically transform the quality of healthcare services provided to rural communities. In particular, the dramatic cost reductions and technological improvement of renewable energy technologies in the past decade make renewables an economically and technically viable solution that can be rapidly deployed.
Several successful examples of renewable-based systems powering rural health clinics have already had a broad transformative impact on the quality of life of rural communities. However, a more widespread deployment of off-grid solutions for health centers is often hampered by institutional barriers and gaps of policy and financial nature.
Harnessing the enormous potential of renewable energy to improve energy access for rural healthcare facilities requires a combined action from the health and energy sectors. To this end, the international conference on Renewable Energy Solutions for Healthcare Facilities brought together key energy and health sector stakeholders, including policy-makers, practitioners, financial institutions, development partners, and NGOs that can play a role in enhancing electricity access for rural healthcare facilities in low-income areas. The conference was a unique opportunity to discuss challenges to the deployment of renewables for health centers, present successful case studies and identify technical, regulatory, policy, and financial options which can accelerate the deployment of renewable energy to the benefit of poor rural communities.
Key messages that emerged from the conference:
Health facilities should be a high priority in electrification plans among both national governments and development partners. Off-grid renewables offer rapidly deployable, reliable, cost-effective solutions.
Addressing the energy need in healthcare facilities requires increased co-operation between the energy and health sectors, including ministries of energy and health. This should happen at all levels, from strategy and planning to policies, budgeting, procurement and implementation.
Capital and recurring expenses related to electricity should be budgeted as part of healthcare facility operations from the outset. Budgeting should also reflect costs for operation and maintenance, such as battery replacement.
Strong collaboration between private, public and non-governmental institutions has proven a key success factor for healthcare electrification in certain African and South-Asian countries. Such partnerships should be encouraged.
There is a need for innovation in delivery and financing models. Dedicated support and financing schemes, and energy service agreements, can help accelerate electrification of rural health centres.
Aggregation models, with proximal health facilities grouped together on a shared energy service contract, could bring down costs and facilitate maintenance.
Innovation has to be encouraged and promoted across the value chain, including in the design of robust, low-maintenance, efficient, user-friendly medical devices suited for use in remote off-grid areas.
Energy-efficient medical devices, combined with off-grid renewable energy and telecommunications, can expand the services offered by primary health centres in under-served communities. This also reduces the need for patients to travel to larger, more distant facilities.
A local ecosystem must be created to ensure the long-term sustainability of renewable energy systems. This includes training staff and maintenance technicians in rural areas.
Electrifying rural health centres strengthens staff recruitment and retention, further improving the reliability and continuity of rural medical devices.
These outcomes are summarised in IRENA’s healthcare conference flyer.
Adnan Z. Amin, Director-General, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Maria Neira, Director, Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants
of Health, World Health Organization (video message)
Decentralised renewable energy in healthcare: The energy-health nexus
The session will provide the opportunity to analyse the energy-health nexus and the challenges in health delivery due to absence of reliable access to energy. Experts will discuss the role of sustainable energy to improve the availability, quality and affordability of healthcare services and shed light on existing barriers to the widespread deployment of decentralised renewable energy solutions in this context.
Moderator: Salvatore Vinci, Head, Partnerships and Technical Advisory Services, IRENA
Harish Hande, Co-Founder, SELCO Foundation
Juliana Lunguzi, Honorable Member of Parliament, Malawi
Kawaldip Sehmi, Chief Executive Officer, International Alliance of Patients’ Organizations
Hanumappa Sudarshan, Founder and Honorary Secretary, Karuna Trust
Fostering cooperation between energy and health communities: New policy approaches
The session will discuss different policy approaches to better deliver health services to under-served populations, using renewable energy solutions as a catalyst. Bringing together representatives from the health, energy and rural development sectors, this session will assess how to strengthen co-operation between key stakeholders from different sectors and how this co-operation can contribute to the development of evidence-based recommendations to design adequate policies and programmes.
Moderator: Bikash Pandey, Director of Clean Energy, Winrock International
Angelo Coppacchioli, General Manager, Ergon Peru – Tozzi Green
Hem Himanshu Dholakia, Senior Research Associate, Council on Energy, Environment and Water, India
Ram Prasad Dhital, former Executive Director, Alternative Energy Promotion Center Nepal
Robin Fola Mansaray, Head, Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, Sierra Leone
Facilitating financing and optimising delivery models for decentralized renewable energy for rural health centres
This session will provide the opportunity to examine efficient and effective delivery models for the electrification of rural health centres through decentralised renewable energy solutions. In this context, key stakeholders will discuss lessons learned, good practices and innovations related to financing approaches, that can be extended, adapted or replicated in similar contexts. Experts will also discuss specific instruments and measures that have proven to, or have the potential to, maximise impact and facilitate financial sustainability in the long run.
Moderator: Katarina Uherova Hasbani, Vice-President Alliance for Rural Electrification
Pamli Deka, Senior Manager, Electricity Governance Initiative, WRI India
Tailoring Rural Healthcare: Innovation in medical devices and healthcare service in low resource settings
This session will explore the progress being made in the design, distribution and maintenance of health technologies and medical devices tailored to low-resource settings. It will bring together manufacturers, practitioners, the public sector and research institutions to discuss how to innovate and adapt medical devices in an effort to ensure adequate health services for all.
Moderator: Huda Jaffer, Lead Designer, SELCO Foundation
Joseph C. Abueg, Clinical Applications Manager for ASEAN, India and Africa, GE Healthcare
Jaishankar Natarajan, Assistant Vice President, Head New Business Development, Godrej Sure Chill
Laura Stachel, Executive Director and Co-founder, We Care Solar
Jeff Stottlemyer, Senior Manager, Market Development, CLASP
Adnan Z. Amin is the Director-General of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), currently serving his second term. He has more than 25 years of experience and recognised accomplishments in the international arena, primarily in the fields of sustainable development. Full Biography
Honorable Member of Parliament Malawi
Hon. Juliana Lunguzi
Honorable Juliana Lunguzi is a Member of Malawi Parliament, representing
Dedza East. She is the Shadow Minister-Health and Chair, Parliamentary
Committee on Health. She is also a Public Health Specialist and a State
Through her work in Malawi and internationally, she has
contributed to the significant growth and professionalisation of the nursing
profession in Malawi, including development of nursing and midwifery standards and operational
procedures, and co-ordinating the first emergency obstetric care assessment in Malawi, which provided
data for the development of the road-map for the reduction of maternal and neonatal morbidity
and mortality in Malawi.
She successfully led a multi-sector team which included Ministry of Health
and WHO, to develop and operationalise a community health service package implemented under
the Malawi Social Action Fund, addressing issues of maternal and child health towards achieving the
Millennium Development Goals
Clinical Applications ManagerGE Healthcare
Joseph C. Abueg
Dr. Joseph C. Abueg is a Clinical Applications Manager in Life Care Solutions ASEAN, in India and Africa region. Before joining GE healthcare, he has been working as a Clinical Applications Leader for Life Care Solutions. He also served as a Clinical Applications Specialist, in Patient Monitoring and Anesthesia Solutions. In 2007-2008, Joseph worked as a Medical Officer in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Before that, he was a Anaesthesiologist, Bulacan Provincial Hospital, Philippines in 2005–2006. In 2003–2005, Abueg worked as a Medical Officer in Department of Anaesthesiology, Philippine General Hospital.
He is qualified with achievement of Fellow in Clinical Education by accredited provision, in the Higher Education Academy, United Kingdom, in 2014.
He earned the degree of Master of Science in Clinical Education, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Before that, Joseph received Residency Training in Anaesthesiology in University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, in 2003. He received Doctor of Medicine (MD) in College of Medicine, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines. He also has a Bachelor of Science in Biology (BSc) earned from University of the Philippines.
General ManagerErgon Peru - Tozzi Green
Angelo Coppacchioli is a managing director of ERGON PERU, a company of TOZZIGREEN Group of Italy. He is a chemical engineer Universitá degli studi La Sapienza Roma (Italy).
With more than 40 years’ experience managing oil & gas, he is involved in petrochemical and renewal energy projects in various countries. Angelo is also an expert in project financing and company’s management worked in England, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Latin America. At moment, he is managing the most important project of renewal energy in Latin America.
Senior Manager, Energy AccessWRI India
Pamli is a Senior Manager, who leads the energy access work in India. She is exploring the linkages between energy access and social developmental goals, and supporting in identifying finance and technology for access solutions. The WRI energy access teams works with health, education and livelihood partners to help them access reliable, affordable and sustainable electricity for service delivery.
Prior to WRI, Pamli worked with New Ventures India where she mentored clean energy enterprises, supporting them in scaling up their operations and seeking investments. She started her career on the oil fields with Schlumberger and since 2005, has been in the energy sector across multiple functions – from consulting to financial analysis with firms like the BCG and Shell India. Pamli holds an MBA from INSEAD and has an engineering degree from IIT-Roorkee.
Former Executive DirectorAlternative Energy Promotion CentreNepal
Ram Prasad Dhital
Ram Prasad Dhital served as the Executive Director of Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC) overseeing operations, strategic and technical initiatives in renewable energy sector of Nepal. Ram recently completed his four year full term tenure at AEPC as ED. Ram has nearly two decades of experience in energy policy and design of Solar, Biogas, clean cooking and Hydro power in sustainable manner.
He started his career as Technical Officer in Rural energy Development Project, UNDP Nepal in 1998.With successful completion of two International assignments as Renewable Energy Advisor, National Area Based Development Program, Afghanistan and Rural Energy Technical Advisor, Vanuatu Energy for Rural Development Program, Vanuatu respectively Mr. Ram has excel in the roles undertaken and shared the knowledge and learning cross border by leaving a remarkable change and progress in Renewable Energy sector of Nepal; deploying renewable energy to more than one million beneficiaries nationwide.
Senior Research Associate Council on Energy, Environment and Water
Hem Himanshu Dholakia
Hem Dholakia is a health professional turned policy researcher and leads the Risks and Adaptation team at The Council. His research addresses the linkages between energy, environment, human health, and public policy in India. Specifically, it understands health impacts of urban air pollution, maps climate risks on infrastructure, develops early warning systems for extremes of heat, and analyses potential of renewable energy to improve rural health outcomes.
Hem’s current research efforts are geared towards developing a heat-health warning system in the Bundelkhand region, scaling up of solar for primary health in India’s north-eastern states, supporting farmers to reduce seasonal crop burning in Punjab and Haryana.
Hem holds a PhD from the Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad), a Masters in Exercise Science from University of Brighton (UK) and an undergraduate degree in Physiotherapy from Seth G.S. Medical College.
Harish Hande is an engineer and renewable energy entrepreneur with over 22 years of grassroots experience in meeting requirements of underserved communities. He is the co-founder of SELCO India, and under his leadership SELCO reached 650,000+ households across 6 Indian states, while focusing on Innovation and Ecosystem building, for which he was awarded the Magsaysay Award in 2011.
Harish is recognized as a pioneer of rural energy service across the globe. He and his company have received many national and international awards including the Ashden award (2005 and 2007), The tech museum award (2005), Khemka Social entrepreneur of the year 2007 and the Financial Times –Arcelor Mittal Boldness in Business award 2009.
Lead DesignerSELCO Foundation
Huda Jaffer started as a product designer for SELCO India Pvt Ltd after graduating as a product and user interface designer from Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology. She has been involved in the inception and building of SELCO Foundation and is the Lead Designer, Head of Urban Poverty Labs and Senior Management Team (strategy) of SELCO Foundation being actively occupied in design projects across various under-served user segments with solutions spanning across social, technical and and financial innovations.
She is deeply passionate about building innovative solutions that are socially, environmentally and financially sustainable. Through her work she hopes to inspire, support and lead social enterprises and future generations that will be agents and champions of sustainability in developing nations.
Avishek Malla is social entrepreneur, with over 10 years’ extensive hands-on experience in Renewable Energy in Nepal and International markets. His experience includes various roles in industry, government, and academia.
He has been a pioneer in the development of solar Photovoltaic (PV) Nepal, he has introduced “Rent to Own” solar energy services in rural health, education and agriculture. He has also authored several solar PV related papers and publications and has been key member to developing national technical standards and policies on solar PV.
He holds a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and Diploma in Management from Kathmandu University and Master’s degree in Renewable Energy from Murdoch University, Australia. He is gold medalist for academic excellence, awarded by former King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and currently Australian Endeavour Awards Ambassador for Nepal.
Associate DirectorClinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI)
Gopal Nadadur is Associate Director at the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI). He leads a portfolio of markets-driven health programs spanning vaccines cold chain, diagnostics and treatment for diarrhea and pneumonia, non-communicable diseases, and solar energy for healthcare. Prior to CHAI, he worked as a global product strategies consultant with large, multinational companies (e.g., GE, Alstom).
He has a doctorate in mechanical engineering (product design) from the Pennsylvania State University.
Assistant Vice President, Head New Business DevelopmentGodrej Sure Chill
Jaishankar has an experience of over 21/2 decades in Godrej and the appliance industry, including a brief stint of 8 years in a Joint Venture collaboration of Godrej with GE Appliances.
He has worked across functions within Godrej Appliances, having had stints in Contract Management, Strategic sourcing, Setting up vendor base for Green field projects, Heading New Product development initially focusing on brown goods and thereafter focusing primarily on setting up external collaborative Innovation networks with Academia, Startup firms, Incubation firms & Application development firms to build a pool of “Innovative Ideas” for the organization.
In his current role he is tasked to evaluate new business opportunities in the Adjacent spaces, prepare a robust entry business case, germinate and scale up spotted opportunities.
Currently his energies are focused on expanding portfolio and scaling up Innovative Cold chain solutions to the Health care industry and bringing to market innovative energy saving beverage cooling solutions for the Commercial sector.
Jaishankar is a BE Mechanical graduate and Masters in Administrative Management. He has also completed his APICS CPIM certification (Virginia US).
Director of Clean EnergyWinrock International
Bikash Pandey is Director of Clean Energy at Winrock International. His work experience encompasses twenty five years in policy review, design, and implementation of a range of clean/renewable energy projects in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. He is one of the pioneers of micro-hydro mini-grid systems in Nepal, where he started his career in energy access.
The revisions in Nepal’s recently approved renewable energy subsidy policy, which were based on a review he carried out in 2015, include a role for private developers to receive incentives to develop mini-grids and inclusion of anchor load based mini-grids. He recently developed a toolkit for USAID outlining the policy, financing, technology and ownership issues around mini-grids. His expertise includes interventions to commercialize renewable energy technologies and design of financing mechanisms and incentives for market transformation.
He has registered a number of energy access projects under the CDM, including the first aggregated domestic biogas projects in Nepal and community micro-hydropower projects in Pakistan. He holds an M.S. from the Energy and Resources Group from the University of California at Berkeley and a S.B. in Electrical Engineering from MIT.
Senior Director, Energy and Climate at United Nations FoundationUnited Nations Foundation
Jem Porcaro is the UN Foundations’ Senior Director for Energy Access. In this role, Jem leads the Foundation’s efforts to expand access to modern energy services in developing countries, and builds synergies with UN agencies and other key multilateral partners, especially Sustainable Energy for All.
Jem has 15 years of experience working on global development, energy and climate issues. Previously, he worked with Nexant, an energy consulting company, in its government clean energy practice in Asia, where it advised governments and multilateral development organizations on clean energy finance and policy.
Jem also worked for four years in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), helping to oversee its global energy portfolio and elevate clean energy access on the global development agenda. Jem received his master’s degree in international affairs, with a concentration in international energy policy and management, from Columbia University and a bachelor of science in civil engineering from Tufts University.
CEOInternational Alliance of Patients’ Organisations
Kawaldip Sehmi is a patient who is championing for the rights of vulnerable patients globally. He has extensive experience in paediatric healthcare and children and adolescents mental health services. He previously held the position of CEO at Richmond Psychosocial Foundation International and worked as Managing Director of Coram Children’s Legal Centre.
He has European and international public health experience as Director of the Global Health Inequalities Programme and as Chairman of the European Network of Quitlines during the successful negotiations and ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Kawaldip’s qualifications include an MSc in the Public Health International Programme from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, a Master’s in Business Administration and an LLB (Hons).
Executive Director, Co-FounderWe Care Solar
Laura E. Stachel
Laura Stachel, Co-founder and Executive Director of We Care Solar®, is an obstetrician-gynecologist with fourteen years of clinical experience. She holds an M.D. from University of California, San Francisco and an M.P.H. in Maternal and Child Health from University of California, Berkeley. She was a staff researcher at the Blum Center for Developing Economies at UC Berkeley until 2015. Her research on maternal mortality in Nigeria in 2008 alerted her to the deleterious effects of energy poverty on maternal health outcomes.
Along with Hal Aronson, she co-founded We Care Solar to bring simple solar electric solutions to maternal and child health care in regions without reliable electricity. We Care Solar has equipped more than 2000 health facilities in over 20 countries with the We Care Solar Suitcase®, a compact solar energy system providing essential lighting and power.Laura is passionate about promoting sustainable energy solutions for women’s health and speaks around the world on this topic. She has been active in the UN Foundation’s Sustainable Energy for All Initiative and has co-chaired a Practitioners Working Group on Energy and Health.
Laura was one of the Top 10 CNN Heroes of 2013. For her work with We Care Solar, Laura received numerous awards, including the 2015 UN DESA “Powering the Future We Want” Award, the 2015 UCSF Alumni Award, the 2014 Katerva Gender Equality Award, the 2012 Clean Energy, Education and Empowerment Award, the 2012 United Nations Association Global Citizens Award, the 2011 Tech Award, the 2010 Jefferson Award for Public Service, and the 2010 UC Berkeley Chancellor’s Award for Civic Engagement.
Jeff Stottlemyer is a senior manager on CLASP's Market Development and Innovation team, where he leads programs that catalyze off-grid solar technology innovation and expand markets for high-quality, energy efficient off-grid solar products, with a particular focus on household and productive use appliance technology.
He manages the Global LEAP Awards, an international competition that identifies the world’s best off-grid appliances, and an affiliated results-based financing program to catalyze deployment of these life-changing products. Jeff received an MSc. from the London School of Economics and a BA from James Madison University.
Founder and Honorary SecretaryKaruna Trust
In 1986, Dr. Sudarshan founded Karuna Trust for “Reaching the Health Care to the Unreached”. Karuna Trust provides Primary Health Care through Public–Private Partnership to 1.5 million people in 6 states (Karnataka, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Orissa and Rajasthan) of India in very remote, hilly tribal areas.
Karuna trust has made several process and technological innovations for providing cost effective health care services. He has shared his wide experience by volunteering with the Government through his Chairmanship of the Karnataka Governments’ Task Force on Health & Family welfare as well as leading a ‘battle’ against the ‘epidemic of corruption’ as the Vigilance Director of the Karnataka Lokayukta (Ombudsman).
He is active member of ECHO-India and implements ECHO project for empowering Primary Care physicians and Health workers. He has been awarded Padmashree by President of India, recipient of Right Livelihood Award (Alternate Nobel Prize) and International Social Entrepreneur Award of the year 2015 by Schwab Foundation at World Economic Forum.
Associate DirectorThe Rockefeller Foundation
Pariphan Uawithya joined The Rockefeller Foundation in 2012. He is part of The Rockefeller Foundation’s Smart Power initiative aimed at scaling energy access in order to drive economic and social development. He managed the establishment of Smart Power India, a dedicated platform to support the acceleration of last-mile electrification in India including a portfolio of 150 mini-grids. Most recently, he led the expansion of the energy access initiative to Myanmar and is currently leading a market and financing study to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current market for mini-grids in Myanmar, and identify financing solutions.
Prior to joining the Foundation, Mr. Uawithya led a number of Asia-based governance initiatives with Oxfam and Save the Children.
Katarina Uherova Hasbani
Katarina Uherova Hasbani is Founder of Enrupt, open innovation platform for energy sector. She founded EnRupt to support the ongoing transformation of the energy sector to be closer to the customer, using cleaner, renewable sources, and leveraging digital technologies.
She is driving this transformation by building partnerships between young, innovative startups and corporations. Enrupt has rapidly become a dynamic builder of energy-focused startup innovation from Singapore and expanding to Dubai in Q4 2018. Katarina has 15 years of professional experience in energy from government & consulting in Europe, Middle East & South-East Asia. She was a visiting scholar at Stanford University in 2011 and continues to research on topics related to energy sector transformation, focusing on countries and companies transiting from fossil-fuels to renewable energy based systems.
Katarina is Vice President on the Board of the Alliance for Rural Electrification (Industry association, HQ in Belgium) and driving Insead Alumni Women in Business activities. She is always looking out for opportunities to support energy sector transformation and champion gender equality, especially in energy.
Managing PartnerTrama TecnoAmbiental
Xavier Vallvé holds Engineering and Master’s degrees from the University of Waterloo (Canada) and is co-founder (1986) and director of the consultancy firm Trama TecnoAmbiental (TTA) in Barcelona, Spain. He has been an active practitioner and researcher for more than 30 years in renewable energy rural electrification and distributed generation projects, autonomous as well as grid tied, RE hybrid technology and micro grids for islands and isolated villages.
Many of his projects involved interdisciplinary activities in economic, social and management aspects as well as engineering in RE generation and storage.
He has been involved in feasibility studies, engineering and project management of many PV rural micro grids in isolated villages in Africa, South America, Asia and the Pacific for private and government clients and also for UNDP, UNIDO, UNEP, AECID, IDB, WB, EC, IRENA and other agencies. He is also an active member in international codes and standards committees and teaching activities on this subject.
Head, Partnerships and Technical Advisory ServicesIRENA
Salvatore Vinci is the Head of Partnerships and Technical Advisory Services at IRENA. Since Joining IRENA in 2010, Salvatore Vinci has been managing projects related to policies to promote renewable energy, with focus on developed and developing markets. He has authored several publications, the last ones being ‘Policies and regulations for private sector renewable energy mini-grids’ and ‘Adapting market design to high shares of variable renewable energy.
Salvatore is heading the Agency’s work on technical advisory services and coordinates the Agency’s global partnerships, including the Global Geothermal Alliance and the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) Lighthouses Initiative. Salvatore is the Coordinator of the International Off-grid Renewable Energy Conference and Exhibition (IOREC) and has been in charge of the programme development for all four editions of IOREC.
Before joining IRENA, Salvatore worked at the Department of Energy of the Italian Ministry of Economic Development. He holds a degree cum laude in Environmental Engineering and a Master’s degree in Energy Resources Management.
Assistant General ManagerNigerian Electricity Regulatory CommissionNigeria
Eng. Abdussalam Yusuf holds a PhD in farm power and Machinery from the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. He worked for 9 years at the Energy Commission of Nigeria, focusing on renewable energy, energy demand and supply modelling and policy analysis.
He joined the Planning Research and Strategy division of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) in 2007 and over the past 11 years has been focusing on regulatory treatment of renewable energy and rural electrification investments.
He has been the focal person on the Nigeria‘s Renewable Energy Feed-In tariff regulation issued in 2014 and recently the Mini-grid Regulation of 2017. Has special interest in modelling of energy supply system alternatives and their environmental implications
Dr. Yusuf is the secretary of the Nigerian National Committee of the World Energy Council, WEC and a registered member of the Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN).
Getting to the venue
Marina Bay Sands is linked directly to Bayfront MRT Station (CE1/DT16) along the Circle Line/Downtown Line.